El informe de Brodie PDF ✓ El informe ePUB


El informe de Brodie El Informe de Brodie supone una evolución imprevista en la estética de Jorge Luis Borges A diferencia de El Aleph y Ficciones ue abundan en enigmas y en símbolos los once cuentos de este volumen fruto de la lenta madurez del gran escritor son directos desnudos y sencillos

  • Paperback
  • 141 pages
  • El informe de Brodie
  • Jorge Luis Borges
  • Spanish
  • 10 May 2016
  • 9789500426985

About the Author: Jorge Luis Borges

Jorge Francisco Isidoro Luis Borges Acevedo usually referred to as Jorge Luis Borges Spanish pronunciation xoɾxe lwis boɾxes was an Argentine writer and poet born in Buenos Aires In 1914 his family moved to Switzerland where he attended school and traveled to Spain On his return to Argentina in 1921 Borges began publishing his poems and essays in Surrealist literary journals He also wo



10 thoughts on “El informe de Brodie

  1. Glenn Russell Glenn Russell says:

    Welcome to the many universes of Jorge Luis Borges For those new to the author this is an excellent place to start with Borges since these stories are accessible and straightforward containing very little of the baroue complexity characteristic of his earlier collections To share the wisdom nectar of these eleven Borges tales I will focus on the title story And let me tell you I have read a number of books on indigenous tribes by cultural anthropologists such as Raymond Firth and Colin Turnbull but I have never encountered a study uite like Brodie's ReportBRODIE’S REPORTStrange Find The narrator relates how he discovers a manuscript tucked inside the cover of Thousand and One Nights a manuscript written by one David Brodie a Scottish missionary who preached in the jungles of Brazil a manuscript he is now making known to the world; and the narrator says how he will take pains to reproduce the manuscript’s colorless language verbatim Such a mysterious find is classic Borges the narrator is only the messenger any actual firsthand experience of unfolding peculiar events belongs to another Bare Facts Here are the raw facts about this bestial wild brutish tribe Brodie calls Yahoos vowels are absent in their harsh language; the number of their tribe never exceeds seven hundred; they sleep wherever they find themselves at night and only a few have names; they call one another by flinging mud or throwing themselves in the dirt; their diet consists of fruits roots reptiles and milk from cats and bats; they hide themselves while eating but have sex out in the open; they walk about naked since clothing and tattoos are unknown to them; they prefer to huddle in swamps rather than grasslands with springs of fresh water and shade trees; they devour the raw flesh of their king ueen and witch doctors so as to imbibe their respective virtues For an author like Borges a highly cultivated refined aesthetically attuned urbane gentleman and man of letters life among this tribe of Yahoo could be seen as his worst nightmare And of course Yahoos bring to mind that memorable tale by Jonathan Swift uestionable Honor The tribe is ruled over by a king whose power is absolute Each male child is closely examined to see if he possess bodily signs both secret and sacred revealing him as their future king Once a child is chosen as king of the Yahoos he is immediately castrated blinded and his hands and feet cut off so as he will not be distracted by the outside world setting him free to imbibe inner wisdom The king is then taken to a cavern where only witch doctors and a pair of female slaves are permitted entry to serve the king and smear his body with dung By this extreme social custom I think Borges is asking us to ponder the perennial philosophical uestion is our basic corrupt human nature improved by society and culture a view held by such as Plato and Aristotle; or are we as according to Jean Jacues Rousseau good by nature and corrupted by society? However we approach this uestion one thing is for sure no other non human primate tribe would inflict such brutal dismemberment on their leaderVision and Creativity The ueen looks at Brodie and then in full sight of her attendants offers herself to him He declines but then the ueen does something unexpected – she pricks Brodie with a pin a pin manufactured elsewhere since the Yahoos are incapable of manufacturing even the simplest objects Pin pricking from the ueen is seen by the Yahoo as an honor the ueen projects that Brodie will not feel any pain since all the Yahoos are insensitive to pain and pleasure with the exception of the pleasure they take in gorging on raw and rancid food and smelling its noxious odor On the heels of this episode Brodie make a startling pronouncement lack of imagination makes them cruel To my mind one of the most powerful statements within the story linking cruelty with an individual’s lack of imagination and also linking cruelty with a society’s lack of imagination How far removed are we from the Yahoos in this respect really?Bizarre Brodie reports how the Yahoo number system is uniue how they count one two three four and then immediately go to infinity Also uniue is the power the witch doctors have to transform anyone into an ant or a tortoise; as proof of this truth the Yahoo point out red ants swarming on an anthill Then we arrive something truly uniue the Yahoo have virtually no memory they barely have any recollection of past time beyond yesterday On this topic Brodie makes a general philosophically point memory is no less marvelous than prophesy since the ancient happenings we easily recall the building of the pyramids; the parting of the Red Sea are much distant in time than tomorrow As we all know our very human capacity to remember can be a mixed blessing although our humanity is enriched we can freuently be burdened by continually bringing to mind not only nasty and sad memories but tragic and horrific memories Not the Yahoo they only go back as far as yesterdayTheology Since Brodie is a Scottish missionary predictably his report includes the Yahoo system of religious belief Turns out the Yahoo believe both heaven and hell are underground their hell is bright dry and inhabited by the old the sick the mistreated as well as Arabs leopards and the Apemen Yes Brodie reports how the Yahoo have to fend off attacks by the Apemen No further detail is given on the Apemen which makes the whole report a bit spooky Anyway the Yahoo heaven is dark and marsh like and the afterlife reward for kings ueens witch doctors along with the happy the hardhearted and the bloodthirsty I can just imagine what Jorge Luis Borges must have been thinking outlining such a Yahoo theology a theology that really stretches our conventional views of the afterlife to say the leastThe Arts Brodie’s report includes the two Yahoo sports organized cat fights and executions Sound like fun? I wonder if they would sell tickets to outsiders Then Brodie reports on how a poet is a Yahoo who can string together six or seven enigmatic words The poet will then shriek out these mysterious words surrounded by his fellow Yahoo who consider the poet no longer a man but a god And as a god they have the right to kill the poet on the spot However if the poet can escape the circle he can seek refuge in a desert to the north of the jungle Again I wonder what was going through the mind of Borges when he envisioned poetry and the Yahoo – certainly enough to make a refined aesthete’s skin crawl Home Sweet Home Bordie reports how now that he’s home in Scotland he still dreams of the Yahoo and how the Yahoo are not that far removed from the streets of Glasgow since after all the Yahoo have institutions a king speak a language based on abstract concepts believe in the divine origin of poetry and also believe the soul survives death Lastly let me note how Brodie reports how based on their rather abstract language the Yahoo are not a primitive people but a degenerative people; in other words they are a people whose ancestors were once highly civilized perhaps even European A rather chilling thought

  2. Bill Kerwin Bill Kerwin says:

    In his old age Borges using Kipling's Plain Tales from the Hills as his model crafted these deceptively straightforward narratives in a new laconic style Argentinian history the half savage Pampas the criminals of the Buenos Aires' slums and duels both actual and metaphorical are the subjects of these tales They are all worthwhile and three of them The Interloper The Encounter and the Gospel According to Mark are as good as anything he ever wrote

  3. Sidharth Vardhan Sidharth Vardhan says:

    I do not aspire to be Aesop My stories like those of the Thousand and One Nights try to be entertaining or moving but not persuasiveMost of the stories reveal in their real themes in spoilers So won't talk about them specificaly But one thing in common in all of them is that none of them are fantastic Except perhaps the titular one in which a priest discovers and tries to convert to Christianitya community that look like and is called by him Yahoos The difference between Doctor Brodie's no relation to Miss Jean Brodie Yahoos and Guliver's Yahoos is that the former aren't primitave rather narrator speculates on the basis of their language but rather a advanced age who forgot how to read and write Given the ever shortening attention span of our generation it might be happening any time soon to rest of usAbout the king of Yahoos “So that the physical world may not lead him from the paths of wisdom he is gelded on the spot his eyes are burned and his hands and feet are amputated Thereafter he lives confined in a cavern called the Castle “zr” into which only the four witch doctors and the two slave women who attend him and anoint him with dung are permitted entrance Should war arise the witch doctors remove him from his cavern display him to the tribe to excite their courage and bear him lifted onto their shoulders after the manner of a flag or a talisman to the thick of the fight In such cases he dies almost immediately under the hail of stones flung at him by the Ape men”On the way they count “I shall speak now of the witch doctors I have already recorded that they are four this number being the largest that their arithmetic spans On their fingers they count thus one two three four many Infinity begins at the thumb”Yahoo can see into future but no longer than 15 minutes which makes Brodie reflect “Knowing that past present and future already exist detail upon detail in God’s prophetic memory in His Eternity what baffles me is that men while they can look indefinitely backward are not allowed to look one whit forward And why did they loose all the civilisation they might have gained in past? No idea But I think it might be they started prosecuting freedom of speech and arts “Another of the tribe’s customs is the discovery of poets Six or seven words generally enigmatic may come to a man’s mind He cannot contain himself and shouts them out standing in the center of a circle formed by the witch doctors and the common people who are stretched out on the ground If the poem does not stir them nothing comes to pass but if the poet’s words strike them they all draw away from him without a sound under the command of a holy dread Feeling then that the spirit has touched him nobody not even his own mother will either speak to him or cast a glance at him Now he is a man no longer but a god and anyone has license to kill himMost of the rest of the stories are about rivalries knives gangsters etc Often stories though realistic are such that an alternative interpretation suggested by author becomes possible Sometimes objects seem to have personalities of their own sometimes the events of a story are suspiciously similar to those that occurred in past though with a decline in settings and peopleEven prefaces written by Borges are awesomeFrom the story about a really old woaman “Now all my dreams are of dead people” was one of the last things she was heard to sayNo one had ever thought of her as a fool but as far as I know she had never enjoyed the pleasures of the mind; the last pleasures left her would be those of memory and later on of forgetfulnessMore uotes I prefer the Platonic idea of the Muse to that of Poe who reasoned or feigned to reason thatthe writing of a poem is an act of the intelligence It never fails to amaze me that the classicshold a romantic theory of poetry and a romantic poet a classical theoryMaybe their poor and monotonous lives held nothing else for them than their hatred and that was why they nursed it In the long run without suspecting it each of the two became a slave tothe otherCardoso drew the Red’s official cutthroat a man from Corrientes well along in years who to comfort a condemned man would pat him on the shoulder and tell him “Take heart friend Women go through far worse when they give birth” In tough neighborhoods a man never admits to anyone—not even to himself— that a woman matters beyond lust and possession but the two brothers were in love This in some way made them feel ashamedI felt in the words of the poet Lugones the fear of what is suddenly too late I do not know how long it lasted; there are events that fall outside the common measure of timeI often considered revealing the story to some friend but always I felt that there was a greater pleasure in being the keeper of a secret than in telling it Certain devices of a literary nature and one or two longish sentences led me to suspect thatthis was not the first time he had told the storySleeping as we all know is the most secret of our acts We devote a third of our lives to itand yet do not understand itTwo men met face to face at Guayauil; if one of them was master it was because of his stronger will not because of the weight of arguments“Words words words Shakespeare insuperable master of words held them in scorn

  4. Cecily Cecily says:

    ”I can’t say whether the story was true; the important thing was that it had been told and believed”I have the Collected Fictions with copious translator's notes but am splitting my review of that into its components listed in publication order Collected Fictions all reviews This is the seventh published in 1970 The Encounter is a crucial story describing a seminal episode in JLB’s childhood suggesting the roots of so many of his recurring themesForewordThis prepares the chronological reader for a significant change of style these are “plain tales” that avoid unexpected endings in the mould of Kipling JLB asserts that he JLB is not “a fabulist or spinner of parables” and that his tales “are intended not to persuade readers but to entertain and touch them”Most have an introductory section explaining the allegedly true roots of the story while conceding he may yield “to the literary temptation to heighten or insert the occasional small detail”“For many years I believed that it would be my fortune to achieve literature through variations and novelties; now that I am seventy years old I think I have found my own voice”I confess I was slightly disappointed; this led me to expect something closer to A Universal History of Iniuity than the extraordinary pieces in between that and this But I was heartened by the fact they are set “at some distance in both time and space” and that although they are “realistic two of the stories can be opened with the same fantastic key I am decidedly monotonous” Having finished this collection they are deeper and mysterious than those in A Universal History but straightforward than those in betweenFor all that these are “plain” two stories suggest the importance of imagination In The Other Duel it’s the familiarity of killing animals and the lack of imagination that makes killing people so easy and in Brodie’s Report the Yahoos’ “lack of imagination makes them cruel”He makes no mention here or in the stories themselves of his blindness unlike In Praise of Darkness reviewed as part of Dreamtigers I suppose he was long used to it by thenThe InterloperThis concerns knife fighters in harsh neighbourhoods Familiar territory but not really my thing I assumed incorrectly that this would set the tone for all those that followedFortunately this was deeper and complex than it seemed at first sight Unfortunately it was pretty grim Brothers who might be deemed “white trash” in the US are very close “falling out with one of them was to earn yourself two enemies” The eponymous interloper is a woman who cleaves them in both senses tofrom each other view spoilerOne marries her for service than a relationship but the other loves her too though I would dispute the word “love” They agree to share her “If you want her use her” There is no mention of her opinion but she does what’s demanded “with beast like submissiveness” When jealousy becomes too much they sell her to a brothel but both sneak out to visit her there so they buy her back More jealousy So they kill her “Now they were linked by yet another bond the woman grievously sacrificed and the obligation to forget her” hide spoiler

  5. Ian "Marvin" Graye Ian "Marvin" Graye says:

    Brief Tales Composed in a Plain StyleIn the Foreword to this short collection Borges pays tribute to the late tortured and labyrinthine stories of Rudyard Kipling which he compares favourably to those of Franz Kafka and Henry JamesHowever his real interest and inspiration for these stories was Kipling's earlier stories which Borges describes as a series of brief tales composed in a plain style that amount to laconic masterpieces He speculates that if a young man of genius can achieve these standards then perhaps a man such as himself then aged 70 beginning to get along in years and who knows his craft might without immodesty himself attemptPredicating the UniverseBorges claims that his stories are plain tales though not necessarily simple There is not a simple page a simple word on earth for all pages all words predicate the universe whose most notorious attribute is its complexity The Influence of Thousand and One NightsHere he alludes to Thousand and One Nights which like his own tales are intended not to persuade readers but to entertain and touch themHe describes his stories as realistic for they abound in the circumstantial details that writers are reuired to invent Despite his continuing affection for Poe he claims to have renounced the shocks of a baroue style as well as those afforded by unforeseen or unexpected endingsOf the 11 stories in this collection most make use of a framing story in the manner of Thousand and One Nights The manuscript in the titular story is actually found tucked inside a copy of the bookHere however the substantive story purports to be someone else's tale that has been brought to Borges for him to retell or record There is almost an expectation that Borges being a writer of renown he will embellish the original plain tale and somehow make it entertaining memorable or eternalBorges covenants to tell the story conscientiously though I can forsee myself yielding to the literary temptation to heighten or insert the occasional small detail Any tale especially when retold is re invented in the voice of the story tellerIn Unworthy the bookseller Santiago Fischbein confided to me an episode of his life and today I can tell it I will change the occasional detail as is only to be expectedIn the next story Rosendo Juarez says of Nicolas Paredes That old man was something I'll tell you the stories he'd tellNot so as to fool anyone of course just to be entertaining He proceeds to tell Borges the truth behind the lies you wrote about a knife fight in the tough underworld neighbourhood of Palermo in Buenos AiresThe Stuff of MemoryIn The Encounter the tale teller witnesses another knife fight and yearns for someone to be killed so that I could tell about it later and remember it The story becomes the vehicle for not just entertainment but recollection and memory and therefore historyThe story is the alternative to silence to secrecy In the years that followed I thought than once about confiding the story to a friend but I always suspected that I derived pleasure from keeping the secret than I would from telling it At the end of the story he ventures Things last longer than men with a hint that perhaps stories last longer than things that perhaps stories never end Who can say whether the story ends here; who can say that they will never meet again? Perhaps a story is a station on the line to eternity or even infinity?Told and BelievedIn Juan Murana the narrator says I can't say whether the story was true; the important thing at the time was that it had been told and believedThis observation can apply eually to fiction in general Verisimilitude becomes not just a skill but an object of play in the game between writer and readerEven the detail in the description is designed to convince us without necessarily pulling the wool over our eyes This is a description of his aunt's house Her room smelled musty In one corner stood the iron bed with a rosary hanging on one of the bedposts; in another the wooden wardrobe for her clothes On one of the whitewashed walls there was a lithograph of the Virgen del Carmen A candlestick sat on the nightstand You believe it because you can visualise itYou and OblivionThe story is partly the memory of a knife fight and partly the memory of a room and its occupant Tomorrow when the memory is gone and the room forgotten there will be only oblivion what Borges calls the common oblivion In The Duel Borges concludes that the story that moved in darkness ends in darkness Darkness could be the oblivion of forgottenness which all good stories battle to overcome even if told in a plain style Like Borges' early stories these stories too are laconic masterpiecesOma und OpaA Short Tall TaleI never met my paternal grandparents What I know of them my father and his sisters told me This is all I remember nowMy grandfather spent his early life in Edinburgh He was interested in philosophy all through school and in 1930 he travelled to Germany so he could study under Martin Heidegger at the University of Freiburg There he also met my grandmother the daughter of a Jewish professor of biology Oma was highly intelligent and a keen reader but was no student although she was very supportive of Opa's endeavours So much so that shortly after their marriage she conceived and gave birth to my father in 1932 Once married and even so when my father was born my grandfather couldn't hide Oma's racial identity from Heidegger and eventually Opa was expelled from the University at Heidegger's direction once he became Rektor Oma and Opa caught a boat to Buenos Aires where Opa gained a position as a private tutor in philosophy Unfortunately despite the relative comfort in which they lived Oma caught tuberculosis and died Opa was forced to leave Argentina from where he went initially to Dunedin on the south island of New Zealand and then to Melbourne where his brother and sister in law worked in an architectural firmThey lived together in an apartment building in St Kilda until Opa was lucky enough to negotiate an appointment as a lecturer in jurisprudence at the University of Melbourne As part of his remuneration package he was able to live and work as a tutor in a hall of residence on the campus He also acuired a girlfriend who was happy enough to marry him and share the burden of taking care of my father They subseuently had two daughters my aunts one of whom became a professor of literature and the other a musician she played the cello the sound of which still reminds me of Melbourne even though I was 17 when I left there to study in Canberra where incidentally I listened to much Baroue and early musicSOUNDTRACKview spoilerRobyn Hitchcock You and Oblivion Concerto in D major for Violin Cello Trumpet and Strings hide spoiler

  6. Jim Jim says:

    I am so wrapped up in the several worlds of Jorge Luis Borges that I am sometimes taken aback by the reactions of other readers Doctor Brodie's Report is late Borges and not at all in the same metaphysical vein as the stories in say Ficciones Labyrinths or The Aleph It was written in fact after a long spell of writing virtually no fiction at all the poetry however continued unabatedDoctor Brodie's Report harks back to early Borges to the works of the 1920s and 1930s he has not only disparaged but tried to actively suppress I refer to his early stories and essays about what he calls the suburbs of Buenos Aires when one story dwellings stretched out to where the pampas began and slaughterhouses and knife wielding toughs abounded to process the beef that was exported to Europe While no gangster himself Borges was fascinated by the men who lived on the outskirts of the city men like Juan Murana and Evaristo Carriego These noir heroes perhaps represented what Borges would have liked to be in a different realityAfter all he is the descendent of military heroes and one of his antecedents Manuel Isidoro Suarez was instrumental in winning the Battle of Junin 1824 during the Peruvian war of independence But both he and his father were bookish sorts and during the First World War he was educated in Switzerland The Argentina he returned to fascinated him and it took him many years before he found his stride with the volumes I have mentioned aboveStill I like all of the man's work even his fascination with knife wielding hooligans who had their own inarticulate code of bravery These stories are not uite so popular as The Library of Babel or The Garden of the Forking Paths or Death and the Compass But they are pure Borges nonetheless and well worth readingWould I recommend this as the first work by the author one reads? By no means I would pick one of the famous collections Only when the Argentinean has firmly taken root in the reader's heart do I recommend the minor works of which this is one

  7. Juan Pablo Juan Pablo says:

    Knives knives knivesI had forgotten how important they were In fact I've faced life until now without one whether it has been a life at all might be the most poignant uestionBorges is a master of realism The clarity of his prose strikes deeper within me than most of what I have read recently; I happily lose myself in his short stories expectant of the next word I'll read and despite the themes common across the entire collection knives and the linearity of his accounts he manages to end each with a breathtaking bangI can honestly state that El Evangelio Según Marcos read the trans here changed my perspective on life no work has ever sneaked up on me like this one and then uite physically transformed my conscious being What I felt must be what people would like to refer to when they say they were 'blown away' by something; I had to stop breathe let my mind travel and enjoy the most sublime encounter with art I've had in yearsI should mention the stories although they stand by themselves uite well are all interrelated and I wouldn't be surprised if upon another reading of this exuisite volume I'd be able to dissect the threads running through them all They're about Argentina Argentinianess and Borges's interpretation and construction of the context that surrounded him but that goes without saying They're about those moments of immensity when wide eyed and tachycardic one is able to say 'I am' knowing the next moment will determine who one from then on will be somewhere between always and never blood letting and eternalRead this in spanish if you can I don't know how these are in english but is seems to me this prose would lend itself well for translation the writing is elegant through its educated simplicity By the time this volume was published it was late in Borges's career By then he seems to have mastered his miniaturist style evoking poetry in his strokes and was entirely comfortable with his stature as a writer Borges himself is written in most of the stories well aware of his being Borges many times telling something someone might have told Borges and going into the layers of memory history and identity that this narrative framework allows It's all uite surreal and magical in its straightforward realism meaning it's not gritty but somewhat romantic and sparked by fantasy like the knife fights oft depicted in his storiesuite honestly I can't wait to read pretty much all this man wrote

  8. Cymru Roberts Cymru Roberts says:

    In the forward JLB says he set out to write minimalist stories like Robert Louis Stevenson I can’t say if he is Stevensian or not but I can tell you that these stories are minimalist masterpieces How can he possibly pack so much in four to six pages? And he isn’t cramming in a thousand modifiers into every paragraph either; instead there is a languid almost doggedly mundane uality to a lot of the sentences and yet still by the end it as if we have read an entire novel There are plenty of novels numbering in the hundreds of pages where much less happens Borges in his old age seemed to tire of writing fabulist tales and wanted some good old fashioned realism Well if realism can be like this then I say fuck fantasyCan we take a moment too and ask what is his bloody obsession with gingers? He has this image in his mind – of the redheaded Latino cowboy all dressed in black knife in hand – that is indelible in this volume Where did that image come from? We suspect a real life situation but he never tells us In any event the ginger gauchos of Brodie’s Report engage in duels and have their souls trapped in their street instruments and it’s all still realism How many writers can do that? The sad part is Borges’ relation to all this—he watches the fights and the Red Men in Black all from a distance he can never cross; we feel the sorrowful resignation of JLB that he will always be a lonesome reader and never a lunfardo speaking badass Luckily for us JLB’s disappointment is our enduring gain

  9. Vinay Ayilavarapu Vinay Ayilavarapu says:

    Borges mentions that the inspiration for these stories was from Kipling's laconic masterpieceshope to read them someday He stays true to his words The stories here explore a wide range of themes from religion culture time and memory Unlike his meta fiction or labyrinthine works this focuses mainly on a simple story with a twist at the end The short stories included in this version are1 The Gospel According to Mark Religion5 Stars2 The Unworthy Friend GauchoWestern4 Stars3 The Duel Duel with Paint Brushes35 Stars4 The End of the Duel GauchoWestern45 Stars5 Rosendo's Tale Crime4 Stars6 The Intruder Crime4 Stars7 The Meeting Crime4 Stars8 Juan Murana GauchoPsychological Thriller45 Stars9 The Elder Lady Victim of time5 Stars10 Guayauil Will to Life5 Stars11 Doctor Brodie's Report Culture5 StarsDeceptively simple yet intricately structured I'm sure these stories will still surprise me when I revisit them in the futureRegardsVinay

  10. Regina Andreassen Regina Andreassen says:

    For years I have tried to like Borges I love good Latin American literature as a result I have read some of Borges's works but at this stage I shall admit that although Borges is generally considered to be a very good writer he just isn't the writer for me Perhaps in some years I will pick another book written by him a book that I haven't read yet but I doubt it will be soon Now what can I say about this book? The stories of this book are very simple and not particularly enticing or interesting The writing style is very flat I just couldn't finish the book It made no sense to me to continue reading the book until the end when in my opinion none of the stories I read were truly interesting or enjoyable Good readers need to know when to stop and move on we aren't going to like all books just because they have four or five stars so we must trust our independent and critical thinking and find books that really feed and motivate our soul and brains

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *